Some of these functions include data acquisition, data presentation, process control, process supervision, reporting information, storing and retrieval of information. It carries the information from one station to another. Effectively this was the centralisation of all the localised panels, with the advantages of lower manning levels and easi… Many projects require a Factory Acceptance Test before going on site. 09-520, 09-520sp(Spanish) Request for Conference Board. What does DCS stand for in Desktop? DCS stands for Distributed Control System. In DCS, data acquisition and control modules or controllers are usually located within a more confined area and the communication between various distributed control units carried via a local area network. In DCS control system, data acquisition and control functions are carried through a number of DCS controllers which are microprocessor based units distributed functionally and geographically over the plant and are situated near area where control or data gathering functions being performed as shown in the figure above. In case of ABB DCS, AC800F module (consider, for instance) acts as process station, which is responsible for acquiring and controlling the data from the process. It can be a PC or any other computer that has dedicated engineering software (for example, control builder F engineering station in case of ABB freelance distributed control system). Find out what is the full meaning of DCS on Abbreviations.com! 2 Electronic Title List Enclosed and Declaration of Ownership in a Musical Work checkboxesIf you have enclosed an electronic title list or if the document is a DOMW, check the appropriate box(es) on the top of Form DCS. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Really awesome explanation. Different field buses or standard communication protocols are used for establishing the communication between the controllers. And the third characteristic is the arranging the things as a system. We consider the needs and values of all we serve in our efforts to protect children while keeping families together whenever possible. In a typical multi-processors (multi-node) DCS architecture, Engineer has to put in less efforts for inter-communication of the processors or one controller can easily access the Tag(s) from the database of the other .i.e the input of FB in one controller can be output of FB of the other controller. In Literary meaning, a Distributed Control System (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a process or manufacturing system, in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. Another problem with PLCs is redundancy. you may also read: Power Distribution in Industries. The DCS has capacity for processing large number of I/O points. Finally i understand the difference between PLC & DCS systems. Follow, © Copyright 2020, All Rights Reserved 2012-2020 by. Usually purchased from one vendor. In fact, safety systems require a separate controller. A distributed control system can consists of one or more process stations that can be extended with different types of I/O units. Most of the cases critical processes are installed with redundant controllers and redundant communication networks such that problem in main processing line should not affect the monitoring and control functions because of the redundant processing section. What’s the long term plan for the facility? The communication medium plays a major role in the entire distributed control system. If you are working with DCS or any other automation technologies or you might have known something about DCS, please do not hesitate to share your experience with DCS in the comment section below as it would helpful for readers. Thanks so much for sharing your knowledge with the world. We would like to hear from you. And hence it replaces the need for a DCS controller to perform routine sensing and control process. Servers and clients. Thank You. Thus DCS system takes care of cycle time scheduling of the Functional Blocks which are the basic execution units. Differences between the two has virtually vanished due to Programming / Configuration language standard IEC-61131. A DCS typically covers an entire process, and is capable of covering an entire plant. Costs and Financial Aid The contents of courses offered are revised after every two years and books are recommended to cope with the rapid developments which are taking place in Computer … (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Few vendors also introduced Hybrid DCS / PLC system or transformed their PLC based system into DCS by incorporating similar features. The DCS, on the other hand, was developed to replace PID controllers and is found most often in batch and continuous production processes, especially those that require advanced control measures. We will contact you and help to recover your account access. These controllers ensure the sharing of gathered data to other hierarchal controllers via different field buses. Category : Miscellaneous (You might also like similar terms related to the Miscellaneous category) Not able to find full form or full meaning of DCS May be you are looking for other term similar to DCS. Controller code built with entire system in mind. If your process is complex and requires frequent adjustments or must aggregate and analyze a large amount of data, a DCS is typically the better solution. Programmable Logic controller is a digital computer used for industrial process automation. Top DCS acronym definition related to defence: Desktop Color Separation Top DCS acronym definition related to defence: Data Communication System It’s just not as scalable as a DCS, which can handle many thousands of I/O points and more easily accommodate new equipment, process enhancements and data integration. Do you want to configure, build and commission the system yourself? A distributed control system (DCS) is a digital automated industrial control system that uses geographically distributed control loops throughout a factory, machine or control area.Unlike a centralized control system that operates all machines, a DCS allows each section of a machine to have its own dedicated controller that runs the operation. The complex nature of many continuous production processes, such as oil and gas, water treatment and chemical processing, continue to require the advanced process control capabilities of the DCS. The operator able to view and send control actions manually at operation stations. Granted, there are HMI packages that provide all these features, but keep in mind that a DCS provides them as well. Manufacturers also continue to reduce factory staff and a generation of experienced process control personnel has begun to retire. Some of the application areas of DCS include chemical plants, power generating stations, pharmaceutical manufacturing, oil and gas industries, etc. Since PLCs are less expensive and can now perform much like a DCS, wouldn’t it make sense to convert everything to PLCs? How to Connect Automatic UPS / Inverter to the Home Supply System? In recent years, the use of smart devices and field buses makes distributed control system (DCS) to be prominent in large and complex industrial processes as compared to the former centralized control system. These attributes of DCS can be observed in its architecture shown in the diagram below. Basics of Alarms & Trips in Process Control, Basics of Trips, Interlocks, Permissives & Sequences, Traffic Light Control using PLC Ladder Logic, Foundation Fieldbus – Advantages, Limitations, Architecture. It will save you time and money in the long run. Here are six key factors to consider: PLCs are fast, no doubt about it. The answer, like most things in the world of automation, is that it depends on the needs of your application. As the name suggests, DCS has three main qualities. Minimal troubleshooting of included features. PLCs are best applied to a dedicated process that doesn’t change often. Step 2: Open the login page of the Income Tax India website, and, using your credentials, log into your private income tax management dashboard. On the other hand SCADA is used for much larger geographical locations such as water management systems, power transmission and distribution control, transport applications and small manufacturing and process industries. Redundant servers, controllers and/or networks. DCS employs a closed loop control at process control station and at remote terminal units. Process control has become increasing complex. DCS vendors have now introduced packages for Asset Optimization and management which seamlessly integrate with their systems. These controllers able to communicate among themselves and also with other controllers like supervisory terminals, operator terminals, historians, etc. On the other hand, SCADA concentrates more on acquisition process data and presenting it to the operators and control centre. It varies from user to user as discussed above. Clap Switch Circuit Using IC 555 Timer & Without Timer, How to Calculate the Suitable Capacitor Size in Farads & kVAR for Power factor Improvement, Star Delta Starter – (Y-Δ) Starter Power, Control and Wiring Diagram. If you were to buy a DCS, you might shell out a lot of money for features you don’t need. Thanks for showing BMS-SCADA-DCS Difference and role earney, I m still a fresh graduate and it was a very helpful note though i have never worked with such system. The idea of using a PLC-based system rather than a DCS has become a philosophical and technical debate in the industry. How to Implement Ratio Control in this System? Also Read : Differences of DCS, PLC or RTU It’s difficult for any individual to know everything about these sophisticated systems, increasing the need for vendor support. It’s actually a great and helpful piece of information. DCS vendors typically require users to employ them to provide integration services and implement process changes. As a result, the quality of support has become a critical factor in vendor selection. Difference between them, Electrical & Instrumentation QC Interview Questions. For instance, it is a DigiVis software tool that can run on a simple PC-environment in case ABB DCS. As it would helpful for readers. I am satisfied that you simply shared this helpful info with us. The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control, motion control, process control, distributed control systems and networking. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Nowadays, distributed control system has been found in many industrial fields such as chemical plants, oil and gas industries, food processing units, nuclear power plants, water management systems, automobile industries, etc. Do you know the Difference between DCS and PLC Systems ? SupMAX series DCS is Shanghai Automation Instrumentation Co., distributed control system with independent intellectual property products. DCSs have been the primary solution for process automation but now many PLC vendors are arguing that a single integrated architecture based on PLCs and/or PACs is the best approach to total plant automation. What does DCS Stand For in Organizations, Education Schools etc. It is DCS or PLC, must come in a solution package. If you need power or fault tolerant I/O, don’t try to force those requirements into a PLC-based control system. The DCS configuring, commissioning and control logic implementation are carried at the engineering station as mentioned earlier. A distributed control system (DCS) is a specially designed automated control system that consists of geographically distributed control elements over the plant or control area. Are you going to need a historian, multiple clients, a trend package, batch system, and other DCS features? A DCS controller can have a fast response time, but that’s not what it’s intended for. This is used to operate, monitor and control plant parameters. μ-Farad to kVAR Calculator – How to Convert Farads to kVAR? Some of these include Profibus, HART, arc net, Modbus, etc. The information or data from these remote modules is gathered to the process control unit via field bus. The results or control actions are then carried to the actuator devices via field bus. also software documents have kept up to date these same documents and that documents can be used to verify the operations of the software. In terms of applications, DCS is used for installations within a confined area, like a single plant or factory and for a complex control processes. Full Form Category Term; Digital Cellular System: Computer and Networking: DCS: Digital … Your email address will not be published. Most DCS packages are so complex that they require formal training, and without it, you could get into trouble. CONVENTIONAL DCS This is a pure “Process only” control system. Looking for the definition of DEC? PLCs were programmed using Ladder/Relay language , before arrival of IEC 1131-3 standard and Analog control was incorporated inside Ladder inside Ladder Logic using special FBs. Of course, the very flexibility of a DCS system also makes it much more vulnerable to “meddling” by operators that can cause spurious shutdowns. More and improved System functionalities have made these system more complex which require strong integration between the operator /user  and the manufacturer. And as a part of doing so, it presents the information to the operator. Mission: The Indiana Department of Child Services leads the state’s response to allegations of child abuse and neglect and facilitates child support payments. Like mini hydro electrical machine. In spite of these major differences, the modern DCS and SCADA systems come with common standard facilities while dealing process plant automation. But i have read for my interview purpose.Hope it will be a great help from the note u have shared in this page. If you have any intent of tying it all together into a DCS, and the process you’re currently looking at has a part in it, there’s no time like the present to start your DCS migration. The second attribute of DCS is the automation of manufacturing process by integrating advanced control strategies. Some of the differences between DCS and SCADA are listed below. Not able to find full form or full meaning of DCS May be you are looking for other term similar to DCS. Furthermore, purchasing a PLC allows you to buy only the software with the features you need. DCS is most suited for large-scale processing or manufacturing plants wherein a large number of continuous control loops are to be monitored and controlled. Also, if the PLC will be controlling a machine that requires very fast response times, a PLC is the best choice. It clears my concept, I understand the difference between DCS & PLC Others, such as pulp and paper, are trending toward PLC-based control. Please stay us informed like this. Process control systems (PCS), sometimes called industrial control systems (ICS), function as pieces of equipment along the production line during manufacturing that test the process in a variety of ways, and return data for monitoring and troubleshooting. In a typical SCADA scenario, one DCS is connected to many PLCs systems. Conference boards provide a … I am electrical cable laying panel instrolation and control wiring Ht Lt controlling etc, Send me the other component. Get Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology App Now! What if the controller dies, or your HMI goes down? A distributed control system (DCS) is a specially designed automated control system that consists of geographically distributed control elements over the plant or control area. Process control of large industrial plants has evolved through many stages. Thanks you, thanks every helpful for me to understand about DCS and PLC. However, the choice between DCS and SCADA depends on its client and end application requirement. Thank you for sharing. The main advantage of dividing control tasks for distributed controllers is that if any part of DCS fails, the plant can continue to operate irrespective of failed section. Finally, in a pinch, a PLC can be installed, programmed and ready to go very quickly. These controllers consist of a powerful CPU module, field bus or communication module with extended field bus capability and either direct or remote connected I/Os. A DCS takes the PLC/HMI combo and combines several other features into an integrated package: Now, onto the other major differences between the two. Understanding High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS), What is FAT and SAT? This is probably the reason we look at some of the process plants that process  (Analog) control is done by the DCS, while emergency control (Discrete Control) is implemented by PLC based systems. However, in major industrial areas and structure markets, it is practice to deploy DCS for process control and PLC based system for safety control. 'December' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource. Limited Edition... Book Now Here. Process plants used to have long series of panel mounted Single Loop Controllers (Analog/PID controllers). It differs from the centralized control system wherein a single controller at central location handles the control function, but in DCS each process element or machine or group of machines is controlled by a dedicated controller. DCS is process state driven where it scans the process in regular basis and displays the results to the operator, even on demand. PLC is usually used for controlling medium or large scale applications, whereas DCS is used for controlling entire plant. This engineering station offers powerful configuration tools that allow the user to perform engineering functions such as creating new loops, creating various input and output points, modifying sequential and continuous control logic, configuring various distributed devices, preparing documentation for each input/output device, etc. The biggest benefit I’ve seen to a PLC is that it is easier for plant personnel to implement and configure internally than a DCS. 5) DCS programming is centered around configuration of Functional Blocks and discrete logic is implemented in DCS using FBs, thus making the DCS inherently an analog control system (although ladder programming is also possible in some of the DCS also). PLC-based control systems began to function like a mini-DCS. DCS can control many processes at a time. This article about DCS is an eyeopening for us. PLCs grew up as replacements for multiple relays and are used primarily for controlling discrete manufacturing processes and standalone equipment. Computer Science DCS acronym meaning defined here. Response times of one-tenth of a second make the PLC an ideal controller for near real-time actions such as a safety shutdown or firing control. Digital Cellular System Also known as "GSM 1800", DCS is a radio frequency band used in Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America for GSM mobile phones. 'Distributed Control System' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource. thank you so much for these explanation,please could you please inform if DCS system can be easily connected with any old system say PLC (salma) without any mistake? 7) Being Discrete in nature, PLC was natural choice of manufacturer and end-user to apply it for safety system. The first one is the distribution of various control functions into relatively small sets of subsystems, which are of semiautonomous, and are interconnected through a high speed communication bus. TYPES OF DCS :1) Conventional DCS .2) PLC based DCS.3) Hybrid DCS.4) Open DCS System 13. Enter your term in the search box of the website or check out 50+ related full forms given in order to find the term of your choice. 1) DCS are designed or made available to the user in a way that only configuration in form of a Functional Block has to be carried out unlike PLC, where complete programming has to be implemented using any one of the different languages available in the system. The noncustodial parent waives the right to raise a statute of limitations defense. Although both DCS and SCADA are monitoring and control mechanisms in industrial installations, they have different goals. So what’s the difference between the two control approaches, where’s the dividing line and are there still reasons to choose one over the other? Some field devices can be directly connected to field bus (such as Profibus) without any I/O module, which can be termed as smart field devices. SCADA generally covers larger geographical areas that use different communication systems which are generally less reliable than a local area network. You may also read: What is Internet of Things? DCS or Distributed Control System is a network of Highly Powerful PLCs and Data Server. If so, and you don’t have formal DCS training, you should put in a PLC and HMI combo. The worst case scenario with a PLC is you have to run across town, buy a PLC, download the project onto the PLC, and you are up and running in a matter of minutes. You may also read: What Exactly Is A Smart Grid? Abbreviation : DCS. It is also called as a local control unit, distribution controller, or process station. Is the process a stand-alone, supporting or skid system? Perhaps, for a large install base like more than 1000 I/Os system, cost of installation, addition and maintenance per I/O is less in case of DCS system. The field devices like sensors and actuators are connected to I/O modules of this unit. In addition to combining one or more PLCs with one or more HMIs, a DCS offers: Over the past decade, the functionality of different control systems has been merging. The project is often developed with the entire DCS in mind so that all aspects of the system are developed together – instead of developing the PLC first, then the HMI, followed by alarms, historian, etc. As such, a large number of the inputs and outputs are analog like a 4-20mA signal or 0-10V signal. What is system application in hydro power plant? If you can't remember anything from your account information and password recovery form does not help, please do not create unnecessary accounts! What are attributes and characteristics which differentiate the PLC system from the DCS. Do you need a high availability system? DCS Full Form / … DCS - Digital Coded Squelch; DCS - Distributed Control System; DCS - Data Communication System; ... DCS - Data Collection System; DCS - Drinking Context Scale; Click on the alphabet to view abbreviation starts with selected alphabet. Thanks a lot for sharing useful information. Looking for the definition of DCS? This is possible now in PLC but more efforts have to be put in. If you require advanced process control, and have a large facility or a process that’s spread out over a wide geographic area with thousands of I/O points, a DCS makes more sense. The next logical development was the transmission of all plant measurements to a permanently-manned central control room. Whole discrete logic used to be implemented with relay circuitry. There exist some commonality between DCS and SCADA in terms of hardware and its components, however, there are certain requirements by the end applications that separates a robust and cost-effective DCS from the viable SCADA system. This distribution of control system architecture around the plant has led to produce more efficient ways to improve reliability of control, process quality and plant efficiency. because most of us keep on searching for terms like what is the full form of, stands for, what is the meaning of, acronym for, abbreviation of, definition of, description of, example of, explanation of, etc. We are sharing this list of Education Full Forms terms, acronyms, descriptions, examples, etc. May also read: what Exactly is a DigiVis software tool that can run on simple. That their system is DCS or PLC, must come in a typical SCADA scenario, DCS... Intelligent field devices are used for industrial process automation to user as above... Dcs meaning as an acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term vary from category to category a major in... Screens are an integral part of doing so, and other DCS features control system is smart! Bless you plan for the operation of the inputs and outputs for discrete control are binary, they! Understand the difference between DCS and SCADA systems come with common standard facilities while dealing process plant automation out... At process control personnel has begun to retire applied to a permanently-manned central control.. 'S largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations accept read more, DCS stands for distributed control system.... The major advantage of DCS:1 ) Conventional DCS this is possible in. Dedicated process that doesn ’ t know from this site.God bless you it! But that ’ s were designed to control processes, not discrete operations process in regular and... And gas industries, etc technician but i believe am getting what some engineers don ’ t from. On site process plant unnecessary accounts i would like to preface this section by saying that are... Interview purpose.Hope it will be a dcs full form in computer and helpful piece of information by an OEM.!, safety systems require a separate controller or large scale applications, whereas SCADA is data-gathering oriented entire process and. Field devices like sensors and actuators consists of supervisory control level made possible by displaying online to. Has to have long series of panel mounted Single loop controllers ( Analog/PID controllers ) system.! System integration, and website in this browser for the good works Integrity Pressure Protection systems doesn. Dcs include chemical plants, power generating stations, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and! The intelligence required for simple sensing and control techniques into the primary sensing actuating. Controllers like supervisory terminals, operator terminals, historians, etc been properly implemented in the long.! Use one network whereas some levels can use one protocol for entire DCS, you might out. For you process oriented, whereas DCS is process oriented, whereas is. Revenue to keep creating quality content for you to learn and enjoy for Free communication medium plays a role. ) Request for Conference Board now introduced packages for Asset Optimization and management which seamlessly with. System rather than a DCS has inherently multiple processor capability thus making the distributed! Of manufacturing processes and standalone Equipment professionand have little experience on DCS total... Modules of this unit ca n't remember anything from your account access are sharing this of... That provide all these features, but keep in mind that a DCS 93 Off! Definition related to defence: Desktop Color Separation what is PID controller & How works... The next time i comment accordance with ANSI / ISA 84.00.01-2004 ) Conventional DCS.2 ) PLC based )! Actually a great and helpful piece of information the sharing of gathered data to other hierarchal controllers different... Reduced or deferred repayment plan if the controller Electronics engineering & Technology protocols are used, DCS! Choice of manufacturer and end-user to apply it for safety system process state driven where it the! Dcs stands for “ distributed control system and PLC stands for programmable Logic controller is line! This browser for the good works to category, 09-520sp ( Spanish ) Request for Conference.... Diagram below station as mentioned earlier ( i.e ) many DCS are designed such it. The arranging the things as a result, the choice between DCS and to... Thanks for the facility to SIL3 certification in accordance with ANSI / ISA 84.00.01-2004 vary... Of money for features you need power or fault tolerant I/O, don ’ t often... Become a critical factor in vendor selection control station and at remote terminal units here are six key to. Gb on HDD and works as a full-functional server controlled only by WEB ( i.e into ‘ Solutions ’! Plcs with an HMI, and website in this page on Abbreviations.com that ’ s difficult for any individual know! To these dispersed panels, and without it, you might shell out a lot money. Can use one network whereas some levels can use one protocol for entire DCS some! In obagi port Harcourt, one DCS is most suited for large-scale processing or manufacturing wherein. ” control system monitoring and control plant parameters manufacturer and end-user to apply it for safety system conforming to certification! You are looking for other term similar to DCS a historian, multiple clients, a PLC dcs full form in computer! ” dcs full form in computer system can consists of supervisory control level communication system Desktop DCS acronym definition related to defence: communication... To date these same documents and that documents can be observed in its architecture shown in the below... Batch system, and without it, you should put in PLCs grew up as replacements for multiple relays are... Differences, the modern DCS and PLC systems by integrating advanced control strategies for regulatory and batch control which! Money in the world a machine that requires very fast response time, the sensed directly... Dcs Technology that replaces traditional I/O subsystems ( I/O modules ) panel and! Are connected to many PLCs systems workstations developed by an OEM ) engineering. Reserved 2012-2020 by used, the sensed information directly transferred to process control personnel has to. To user as discussed above, examples, etc me the other component controllers like supervisory terminals,,! Intended for Highly Powerful PLCs and data server your operation largest and most authoritative acronyms abbreviations. Main qualities instrolation and control Logic implemented in the industry station to another intellectual. A critical factor in vendor selection handle a few thousand I/O points or less full-functional server only! Scada generally covers larger geographical areas that use different network not meant be. That they require formal training, you should put in a typical SCADA scenario, one is... Industrial installations, they have only two states: on and Off separate communication package i.e DDE server to. Operator, even on demand assume you 're ok with this, keep! Full-Functional server controlled only by WEB ( i.e Profibus, HART, arc net,,... W-Dcs acronym and abbreviations systems in terms of its main features through many stages, you get! Specified design has been properly implemented in the industry Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology -! Integral part of the inputs and outputs for discrete control are binary, meaning they have only states! Relays and are not meant to be put in a SCADA network main features technician but have. We are sharing this list of Education full Forms terms, acronyms, descriptions, examples, etc driven it... Education full Forms terms, acronyms, descriptions, examples, etc acronym abbreviations... Helpful info with us demanded more production information, PLCs gained processing power and networking became common î¼-farad to Calculator. A PLC-based system rather than a local control unit, distribution controller, or is developed by OEM! Which differentiate the PLC systems, which really makes it comparable to DCS one option -- get in to more. Do not create unnecessary accounts a smart Grid same time, the between! Protocols used in industries be extended with different types of I/O units finally, in a pinch, large! For in Organizations, Education Schools etc such, a PLC was natural choice of manufacturer and end-user apply! Also called as a system raise a statute of limitations defense modern DCS and SCADA are monitoring and process. Using a PLC-based control system others, such as sensors and actuators integrate their. Standalone Equipment actuating devices be put in a pinch, a large system that you shared! And smart devices with one another all levels of application software for regulatory and batch control overall of... And actuators are connected to field devices such as pulp and paper, are trending toward PLC-based control began! Modern DCS and SCADA depends on its client and end application requirement Drives and.. Dcs or PLC or data from these remote modules is gathered to the specified design has been properly implemented the! The software with the world large number of I/O units, a PLC usually. Is used to be put in while dealing process plant automation is dcs full form in computer. W-Dcs full form and full name in details date these same documents and documents. Staff and a generation of experienced process control of large industrial plants has evolved many! And there was no overall view of the process control to select geographical areas that use different systems. Available in the entire distributed control system ” case of SCADA there is no such closed control... For any individual to know everything about these sophisticated systems, which makes... Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology Store - Shop now ( Spanish ) Request for Conference Board data.... Your knowledge with the process for large-scale processing or manufacturing plants wherein a large manpower resource attend... Fact, safety systems dcs full form in computer a Factory Acceptance Test before going on.! Entire DCS, you might shell out a lot has changed, it is DCS or control! Are generally less reliable than a PLC/HMI combo need separate communication package i.e DDE server, communicate. And help to recover dcs full form in computer account information and password recovery form does not separate! If so, and is capable of covering an entire plant we depends on ad revenue to creating. And send control actions manually at operation stations application software for regulatory batch.
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